UPSC SOCIOLOGY – Paper 2 – Part C – Chapter 7 – Challenges of Social Transformation – Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
GS MAINS – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
- Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a movement run by the Indian Government that seeks to create a clean India.
- The campaign is divided into two sub-missions: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Gramin) under Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Urban) under Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
- Launched on October 2, 2014, it is the largest cleanliness drive of India that involves over three million government employees, students of schools and colleges and other common people.
- It seeks to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitised.
- More than 10 crore individual toilets have been constructed since the launch of the mission; as a result, rural areas in all the States have declared themselves ODF as on 2nd October, 2019.
- It emphasizes the sustainability of achievements under phase I and to provide adequate facilities for Solid/Liquid & plastic Waste Management (SLWM) in rural India.
- It will continue to generate employment and provide impetus to the rural economy through construction of household toilets and community toilets, as well as infrastructure for SLWM such as compost pits, soak pits, waste stabilisation ponds, material recovery facilities etc.
- The mission would be implemented over five years — from 2021 to 2026
- Faecal sludge management and waste water treatment,
- Source segregation of garbage,
- Reduction in single-use plastic,
- Reduction in air pollution by effectively managing waste from construction and demolition activities and
- Bioremediation of all legacy dump sites.
- ODF+ focuses on toilets with water, maintenance and hygiene.
- ODF++ focuses on toilets with sludge and septage management.
- Water Plus aims to sustain toilets by treating and reuse of water, which is launched in 2019.
- Swachh Survekshan conducted by MoHUA since 2016 is the world’s largest urban sanitation and cleanliness survey.
- It has been instrumental in fostering a spirit of healthy competition among towns and cities to improve their service delivery to citizens and towards creating cleaner cities.
- The primary goal of Swachh Survekshans is to encourage large scale citizen participation and create awareness amongst all sections of society about the importance of working together towards making towns and cities better places to reside in.