UPSC Sociology Mains Syllabus
INDIAN SOCIETY : STRUCTURE AND CHANGE
A. Introducing Indian Society:B. Social Structure:
(a) Religious communities in India.
(b) Problems of religious minorities.
- A term applied to mass movements which are based upon intense religious excitement.
- Periodic religious revivals, which seek to restore commitment and attachment to the group, are a regular sociological feature of religious traditions.
- Increase of importance of religion in civic life.
REASONS FOR RELIGIOUS REVIVALISM
- Modernisation irked a reactionary response from orthodox section.
- Historically, British supported the orthodox elements in self-interest.
- Multitudes of religion and sects fuel revivalist tendencies.
- Trying to reach out to the glory of the past.
- Modern means of communication aiding in mobilisation of the group.
- Growth of ideological institutions.
- Mixing religion with politics.
- Poverty, inequality and injustice contribute towards growth of religion.
- Vested interests of the dominant community.
- Communalism and fundamentalism.
- Positive result is that religion might forego some of its corrupted forms or practice.
- Social tension and communal incidents.
- Multiple identities and complicated political scenario like increase in votebank politics.
- Many god-men and god-women exploit the masses.
- Less inclination towards secularism.
- Religious texts are taken at face value.
- Other religions get insecure and tend to turn to religious revivalism.
- Diversion from more compelling social issues.
EXAMPLES OF RELIGIOUS REVIVALISM IN INDIA
- The rise of the Arya Samaj and the Brahmo Samaj movements in India in the 19th century was a response to the growing British presence in India and the British challenge to Hindu traditions.
- These movements paved the way for other NRMs, including Ramakrishna’s Vedanta movement, which sought to make Vedanta philosophy and practice accessible to a Western audience.
- A second such movement was the Transcendental Meditation movement of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.
- A third new religion, with strong ties to the 12th-century Bhakti movement, was the Hare Krishna movement.
- Yet another was the cult founded by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, who was also known as Acharya Rajneesh and, later, as Osho.