UPSC MAINS SOCIOLOGY SYLLABUS
Paper 2 – Section C – Visions of Social Change in India
(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:
(a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
(b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
(c) Violence against women.
(d) Caste conflicts.
(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
(f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.
GOAL (Going Online as Leaders)
GOAL (Going Online as Leaders) is a joint initiative of Ministry of Tribal Affairs and Meta (formerly Facebook), which aims at digital empowerment of tribal youth and women through concept of mentor and mentee. The GOAL phase 2.0 is a Facebook program aimed at guiding and encouraging tribal girls from across India to become village-level digital young leaders for their communities The programme will help to connect underprivileged young tribal women with senior expert mentors in the areas of business, fashion and arts to learn digital and life skills. It will also provide economically and socially marginalized young women with the tools and guidance for the development of livelihood skills.
Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana
VKY aims at creating enabling environment for need based and outcome oriented holistic development of the tribal people.
This process envisages to ensure that all the intended benefits of goods and services under various programmes/schemes of Central as well as State Governments actually reach the target groups by convergence of resources through appropriate institutional mechanism.
It covers all tribal people and all areas with tribal population across the country.
Pradhan Mantri Jl-VAN
Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN (Jaiv Indhan- Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana will be supported financially by Viability Gap Funding (VGF) to Second Generation (2G) Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass and other renewable feedstock.The objective of the scheme is to create an ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and boost to Research and Development in 2G Ethanol sector.
Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP)
The Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) aims to bridge the gap between the Schedule Tribes (STs) and the general population with respect to all socio-economic development indicators in a time-bound manner. There are 30 Central Ministries / Departments, and 23 States and 4 UT, having specific fund allocation obligation for Tribal Sub Plan (TSP).
State Governments are supposed to earmark TSP funds in proportion to ST population (Census 2011) in the State with respect to total State Plan. Ministry of Tribal Affairs(MoTA) has been mandated for monitoring of Central TSP as per the framework and mechanism designed by NITI Aayog.
Van Dhan Scheme
The scheme aims at the economic development of tribals involved in the collection of Minor Food Produces (MFPs) by helping them in optimum utilization of natural resources and providing them with a sustainable livelihood. The Ministry of Tribal Affairs and Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) launched the Van Dhan scheme in 2018 intending to improve the tribal income through the value addition of tribal products. It is a component of ‘MSP for MFP Scheme’ – The ‘Mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support Price (MSP) & Development of Value Chain for MFP’. The Van Dhan Programme covers 27 states and 307 districts.
Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED)
It is the national level cooperative body mandated to bring about socio-economic development of tribals of the country by institutionalising the trade of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) & Surplus Agricultural Produce (SAP) collected/cultivated by them.It plays the dual role of both a market developer and a service provider, empowering the tribals with knowledge and tools to better their operations in a systematic, scientific manner and also assist them in developing their marketing approach. It is involved actively in capacity building of the tribal people through sensitization and the formation of Self Help Groups (SHGs).
Tribal Health & Nutrition Portal – ‘Swasthya’
The e-portal ‘Swasthya’ is a first of its kind providing all health and nutrition related information of the tribal population of India in a single platform.
Swasthya will also curate innovative practices, research briefs, case studies, and best practices collected from different parts of India to facilitate the exchange of evidence, expertise and experiences.
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs has recognized Piramal Swasthya as the Centre of Excellence for Knowledge Management (CoE for KM) for Health and Nutrition.
Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS) scheme
EMRS is a scheme for making model residential schools for Indian tribals (ST- Scheduled Tribes) across India. It started in the year 1997-98. The Eklavya Model Residential School in Shinde (Nashik) has been planned by the Ministry Tribal Affairs to give impetus to quality education in nearby tribal areas. The EMR School follows the CBSE curriculum. Eklavya Model Residential Schools are being developed to impart quality education to tribal students, with an emphasis on not only academic education but all-round development of tribal students.
‘1000 Springs Initiative’
‘1000 Springs Initiative’ aims to improve the accessibility of safe and adequate water for the tribal communities who are living in difficult and inaccessible areas of rural India. ‘1000 Springs Initiative’ includes the provision of infrastructure for piped water supply for drinking; accessibility of water for irrigation and provision for water for backyard nutrition gardens, which is also expected to generate sustainable livelihood opportunities for the tribal people.
Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojna (PMAAGY)
‘Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojna (PMAAGY)’, aims at providing Basic Infrastructure in 36428 villages with significant tribal population having at least 50% tribal population and 500 STs in convergence with Central STC and State TSP funds.