UPSC SOCIOLOGY MAINS SYLLABUS
(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:
(a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
(b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
(c) Violence against women.
(d) Caste conflicts.
(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
(f) Illiteracy and disparities in education
WHAT IS GLASS CLIFF?
The term “glass cliff” refers to a situation in which women are promoted to higher positions during times of crisis or duress, or during a recession when the chance of failure is more likely. Put simply, women in these situations are set up for failure. The glass cliff also extends to racial and ethnic minorities, closely linked to another phenomenon known as the saviour effect.
GLASS CLIFF IN DETAIL
Research shows that women and people from ethnic minorities are more likely to be chosen to lead a company, sports team, or even country when it is in crisis mode. While those glass cliff positions can provide a way for some leaders to prove themselves, they come with significant downsides – including stress, burnout, and derailed careers. Research by Cook and her colleague Christy Glass found that, in US college men’s basketball, coaches belonging to racial minorities were more likely than white coaches to be promoted to losing teams. The researchers also analysed promotion patterns at Fortune 500 companies over a 15-year timespan and saw that – compared to white men – white women and both men and women of colour were more likely to be appointed as CEO in struggling firms.
Explanations of the glass cliff fall into three main categories: those hiring a new CEO might think that stereotypically female traits are helpful in a crisis; a political party might want to signal to the outside world that they are changing; or, perhaps, decision-makers are simply prejudiced against certain groups of people.
Political Glass Cliffs are also in evidence. One obvious example is that of UK Prime Minister Teresa May, who came into power immediately following the UKs referendum to Brexit the EU. Teresa May’s appointment coincided with a flurry of male politicians standing down from (or away from) significant leadership roles – such as David Cameron, Nigel Farage, and Boris Johnson. Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard, Canadian Prime Minister Kim Campbell and Icelandic Prime Minister Johanna Sigurdardottir could also be said to have been appointed under glass cliff conditions.
WHAT IS GLASS CEILING ?
The glass ceiling is a colloquial term for the social barrier preventing women from being promoted to top jobs in management.
The term has been broadened to include discrimination against minorities.
Marilyn Loden coined the phrase “glass ceiling” at a 1978 Women’s Exposition. There are many examples where individuals have broken the glass ceiling. Kamala Harris shattered a glass ceiling when she became the first woman Vice President of the United States.
GLASS CEILING IN DETAIL
Glass ceiling is an invisible barrier that prohibits certain individuals from being promoted to managerial and executive-level positions within an organisation or industry. The phrase is frequently used to characterise the challenges that women and minorities encounter when attempting to advance in a male-dominated business hierarchy. Consider a company with a diverse workforce, including a high ratio of women and minorities at all levels. Compare that to upper management, where women and minorities are disproportionately underrepresented. Now, take the case of a long-serving female employee. A position in senior management becomes available. Instead of being promoted, the women is given the task of training the new manager, who is a less competent man.
The discriminatory nature of the glass ceiling is one of the reasons cited for women being more likely than men to work in positions below their level of competence. This phenomenon has been dubbed “The Paula Principle” by researcher and author Tom Schuller. Other contributing factors identified by Schuller include the challenge of Combining Parenthood and Work, and positive choices based around work-life balance.
EMPLOYMENT CHALLENGES FACED BY WOMEN IN INDIA
Women have been sidelined in economic activities as a result of technical inputs introduced by globalization, while men have typically been afforded greater opportunities for learning and training. As a result, more women than ever before are entering the informal sector or casual labor force. For example, while new rice technology has boosted the usage of female labor, the increased workload for women is in unrecorded and frequently unpaid operations that fall under the category of home production activities.
There is no country on the planet where women get paid equally to men for doing the same work. Even the Nordic countries, which have extremely high overall gender parity, cannot claim equal pay for equal work. According to the survey, India has a 25.4 percent pay difference between men and women. This means that a woman’s median hourly wage is 25.4 percent lower than a man’s median hourly wage.
Sexual harassment is an abominable reality for Indian women on a daily basis. Despite the increase in numbers, women are finding that their complaints are not being adequately addressed by their employers. Employers are either uninformed of the law’s provisions or have only partially implemented them, and those that do set up internal panels have members who are poorly trained.
According to a report by recruiting agency TeamLease Services, five out of ten employees in India Inc have experienced some form of discrimination. In terms of benefits, hours, leave, earnings, opportunities, and promotions, there is gender segregation in the workplace. Pregnant women and women with young children are also at a disadvantage throughout the recruitment process and when competing for job prospects, according to the TeamLease survey.