COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN RURAL AREAS
UPSC SOCIOLOGY SYLLABUS
C. Social Changes in India:
(i) Visions of Social Change in India:
(a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
(b) Constitution, law and social change.
(c) Education and social change.
(ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:
(a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
(b) Green revolution and social change.
(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .
(d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
Communities refer to people bounded in specific geographic areas and communities of interest. The past three centuries have seen major changes in the notion of community. We have moved from a predominantly agricultural and rural society, to an urban industrialized society, and now to a post-industrial society. In this latter period of de-industrialization, there has been erosion of community life and a decline in civil society organizations. These have meant a slow degeneration of traditional family networks, heightened inequality between groups of people as well as growth of institutions to meet the needs of the people, which were hitherto met by the community itself.
Development as a concept would imply that there is progress or change for the better in such a way to enhance the security, freedom, dignity, self-reliance and self-development of groups of people. This would involve twin concepts of social as well as economic development.
WHAT IS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ?
Development may be defined as a process by which the efforts of the people themselves are combined with those of governmental authorities, to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities to integrate these communities into the life of the nation and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress. Community development is a collaborative, facilitative process undertaken by
people (community, institutions, or academic stakeholders) who share a common purpose of building capacity to have a positive impact on quality of life.
AIMS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
- creating equitable conditions and outcomes for health and wellbeing;
- improving the health and prosperity of the community as a whole;
- fostering sustainable community initiatives;
- fostering sustainable self-sufficiency for the people involved;
- increasing personal worth, dignity, and value; and
- building awareness of and resolving issues in the community.
RURAL COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
Community Development Programme drew its inspiration and strategy from erstwhile projects of rural development in the 1920s and just before Indian Independence, as well as the international influences on community development project that developed both in the Great Britain and in America. The first major rural development programme launched after independence in October 1952 in 55 development blocks was with the following main objectives.
a) To secure total development of the material and the human resources in rural areas.
b) To develop local leadership and self-governing institutions.
c) To raise the living standards of the rural people by means of rapid increase in food and agricultural produce.
d) To ensure a change in the mind-set of people instilling in them a mission of higher standards.
In September 1956, a new ministry of community development was created. Then the ministry of Agriculture and Rural development was in overall charge of the programme of the country. Currently the entire centrally sponsored programmes are part of the Ministry of Rural Development. From a centrally sponsored programme it became a state-sponsored one in 1969.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN LATER TIMES
A change in these programmes came about with the advent of the Integrated Rural Development Programme that had conceived of rural development as that of targeting specific groups with a focus on asset creation or wage employment. Later on in the Integrated Rural development programme launched in the sixth plan, the asset creation has taken a cluster-oriented approach that emphasized on the creation of groups for participation and management. Group approaches became the focus in all programmes of rural development dealing with the forestry (joint forest management) watershed, National Rural Health
Mission or Elementary Education other poverty alleviation programmes as well as the mid-day meal scheme (mother’s committees to be formed). Participatory management was emphasized with a mandatory requirement of neighbourhood groups in the above programmes. The DWCRA (Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas) has been instrumental in popularizing the self-help group concept and its has now become a widespread phenomenon for community action and development, in both government initiated and voluntary agency initiated programmes.
Other recent programmes of community development include: Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyatikaran Yojana, Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, National Rural Livelhood Mission, Antyodaya Anna Yojana, National Food Security Mission. Deen Dayal Upadhaya Gram Jyoti Yojana, Indira Awas Yojana, Janani Suraksha
Yojana, Members of Parliament local Area Development Scheme, National Literacy mission and Midday Meal Scheme are the other notable community development programmes being implemented.
TRIBAL COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
The tribal communities received some help through Special Multipurpose Tribal Development Projects (MTDPs) created towards the end of 1954. These MTDPs could not serve the interests of the tribal people since the number of schemes were numerous. Later the Community Development Blocks where the concentration of tribal population was 66% and above were converted into Tribal Development Blocks (TDBs). Due to failure of this to address tribal communities needs, Tribal Sub-Plan Strategy (TSP) was evolved for rapid socio-economic development of tribal people, and is continuing even now with the following objectives:
1. Over all socio-economic development of tribals and to raise them above
2. Protection of tribals from various forms of exploitation.
Community Development Programme was a programme which sought to change the economic, social and cultural life of the rural population and to transform the stagnant villages into progressive rural communities. CDP intended to promote rural welfare through the improvement of education, public health and sanitation, medical facilities, housing, drinking water, hospitals, community centres and sports and cultural activities. The CDP is instrumental in raising the standard of living of the rural people and in reconstructing the rural India. The basic objectives of CDP in India are the development of people or “Destination man”. Despite the shortcomings, the CDP was instrumental in laying the foundation for the development of rural economy and defining rural development strategies and approaches. It recognized the need for investing in men/women and material as a means of bringing about social change in rural area.