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Home » FOR UPSC EXAM CURRENTAFFAIRS 20 DECEMBER 2018

FOR UPSC EXAM CURRENTAFFAIRS 20 DECEMBER 2018

Note:  The following Current affairs has been selected from AIR, PIB, PRS, BBC, The Hindu, IDSA (Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses), Live mint, Indian Express, Quora.com, Hindustan Times, Telegraph, The Times , WTO, New Indian express , The Guardian and is highly recommended for UPSC Prelims and Mains Examination

 

News Analysis: 20-12-2018

National News

General Studies-II : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

 

Rights, revised

  • Lok Sabha has passed a new Bill to protect transgender persons, but concerns remain

  • The passage of a Bill in the Lok Sabha to secure the rights of transgender persons is a progressive step towards extending constitutional protection to this highly marginalised community.

  • The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2018, as passed, is an improved version of the legislation introduced two years ago.

  • The earlier draft was widely perceived as falling short of the expectations of stakeholders and not adequately rights-based, as envisaged by the Supreme Court in its landmark decision on transgender rights in 2014.

  • Experts, as well as the Standing Committee of Parliament on Social Justice and Empowerment, had criticised the original definition of ‘transgender persons’ for violating the right to self-determined identity.

  • The revised definition omits the reference to a ‘neither male nor female’ formulation, and covers any person whose gender does not match the gender assigned at birth, as well as transmen, transwomen, those with intersex variations, the gender-queer, and those who designate themselves based on socio-cultural identities such as hijra, aravani, kinner and jogta.

  • The requirement that a district screening committee must recommend the issue of a certificate to each transgender may be necessary to prevent misuse, but such a process goes against the principle of self-identification, a key right the Supreme Court had protected.

  • The government has omitted the need to go through the same screening committee to get a revised certificate after a transgender has sex reassignment surgery, but the medical certification requirement remains. Transgender persons may question the need for such external gate-keeping.

  • There are other legitimate concerns in the revised Bill, which will now go to the Rajya Sabha.

  • One refers to the bar on forcible separation of transgender persons from their families, except through court orders.

  • It has been revised to cover transgender children. Earlier it covered adults as well, but the committee had noted that it was within the family that many transgender persons faced harassment and abuse, and often felt driven to flee their homes.

  • Another concern is that the Bill criminalises begging by making it an offence for someone to compel or entice a transgender person into seeking alms.

  • When begging itself is no more seen as an offence, it may harm the community if such a means of livelihood – in the absence of employment – is criminalised.

  • The Bill, unfortunately, does not give effect to the far-reaching directive of the Supreme Court to grant backward class reservation to the transgender community.

  • Nor have the Standing Committee’s concerns about recognising civil rights in marriage, divorce and adoption among them been addressed.

  • There is much good intention behind the welfare provisions, but social legislation is much more than high-minded clauses.

  • It needs to be followed up with zealous implementation and framing of deadlines to achieve specific objectives.

Source: The Hindu




 

General Studies-II : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

 

Bill banning commercial surrogacy passed in LS

  • The Lok Sabha on Wednesday passed a Bill banning commercial surrogacy with penal provisions of jail term of up to 10 years and fine of up to ₹10 lakh.

  • The Bill, which will become law once the Rajya Sabha approves it, allows only close Indian relatives to be surrogate mothers and purely for “altruistic” reasons.

  • It states an Indian infertile couple, married for five years or more, can go in for ‘altruistic surrogacy’ where the surrogate mother will not be paid any compensation except medical expenses and insurance.

 

Highlights of the Bill

  • Surrogacy is an arrangement whereby an intending couple commissions a surrogate mother to carry their child.

  • The intending couple must be Indian citizens and married for at least five years with at least one of them being infertile.  The surrogate mother has to be a close relative who has been married and has had a child of her own.

  • No payment other than reasonable medical expenses can be made to the surrogate mother. The surrogate child will be deemed to be the biological child of the intending couple.

  • Central and state governments will appoint appropriate authorities to grant eligibility certificates to the intending couple and the surrogate mother.  These authorities will also regulate surrogacy clinics.

  • Undertaking surrogacy for a fee, advertising it or exploiting the surrogate mother will be punishable with imprisonment for 10 years and a fine of up to Rs 10 lakh.

Source: The Hindu,PRS



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General Studies-III : Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

 

9% growth by 2022 must to generate jobs: NITI Aayog

  • A growth rate of 9% is essential to generate enough jobs and achieve universal prosperity, according to a vision document released by NITI Aayog on Wednesday.

  • Towards this, the ‘Strategy for New India @75’ document recommends a number of steps, including increasing the investment rate, reforming agriculture, and codifying labour laws.

  • On boosting economic growth, the document identified two key steps for increasing the country’s investment rate and the tax-GDP ratio.

  • To raise the rate of investment (gross fixed capital formation as a share of GDP) from about 29% in 2017-18 to about 36% of GDP by 2022-23, a slew of measures will be required to boost both private and public investment

  • India’s tax-GDP ratio of around 17% is half the average of OECD countries (35%) and is low even when compared to other emerging economies like Brazil (34%), South Africa (27%) and China (22%).”

  • “To enhance public investment, India should aim to increase its tax-GDP ratio to at least 22% of GDP by 2022-23,” the report added.

  • While demonetisation and GST have and will continue to contribute positively, the document said efforts need to be made to rationalise direct taxes for both corporate tax and personal income tax.

 

Source: The Hindu


 

Other issues in News:

President’s Rule in J&K from today

  • President’s Rule will come into force in Jammu and Kashmir from Thursday, after expiry of six months of Governor’s Rule, an official order said on Wednesday.

  • President Ram Nath Kovind signed the proclamation paving the way for imposition of Central rule in the State which was placed under Governor’s Rule on June 20 after the BJP withdrew support to the PDP government led by Mehbooba Mufti.

 

Source: The Hindu


 

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